Approximately one in 250 people with autoimmunity involving their red cells have IgG autoantibodies with specificity in the Kell blood groups. Red cells of these individuals have an acquired temporary weakening of their Kell antigens. Some of the patients also have allo-anti-K in their serum. This report presents a case in which an IgG autoantibody may define a new high-incidence red cell antigen related to the Kell blood groups. The patient's Kell blood group antigens are depressed, and his serum contains allo-anti-K. It is postulated that reduced red cell Kell antigenicity is caused by enzymatic degradation, possibly of bacterial origin, and that the acquired loss of Kell antigens, the Kell-specific autoimmune state, and the serum allo-anti-K, are all related aspects of one phenomenon.