The genetic consequences of the social policy of the past in relation to the formation of Afro-Brazilian societies are interesting and have been studied at various biological levels (classical polymorphisms and the mitochondrial and nuclear levels. These allow the estimation of the contribution of African genes and the participation of other ethnic groups in the formation of these communities. With this objective, uniparental systems of exclusively maternal (mtDNA) or paternal (Y-DNA) inheritance in the Curiaú community were analyzed. The results demonstrate a differential contribution of the maternal and paternal genetic systems. Thirty-three sequences were identified by mtDNA analysis; 53% showing an African and 47% an Amerindian origin. For the paternal system, 57% were of African, 37% of European, and 6% of Amerindian origin. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 14:440–447, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.