Originally incorporated as the Human Biology Council in 1974, the Human Biology Association, as it has been known since 1994, has matured in the intervening 30 years to become a society that represents broadly the interests of human biologists in the U.S. and throughout the world. The purpose of this paper is to trace the development of the Association from its foundation to the present in the context of changes in the organization of the Association and in its By-Laws, officers, committees, and membership; the history of the two journals that served as the Association's official organs (Human Biology and American Journal of Human Biology); and how the annual meetings have evolved from a modest one-day plenary session to meetings that last more than two days and include a variety of scientific contributions. Highlights of the national meetings include the Raymond Pearl Memorial Lecture, the Franz Boas Distinguished Achievement Award, and the Edward E. Hunt, Jr. Student Prize. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 17:141–154, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.