Original Research Article
Family composition and menarcheal age: Anti-inbreeding strategies
Article first published online: 20 JUN 2006
Copyright © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
American Journal of Human Biology
Volume 18, Issue 4, pages 481–491, July/August 2006
How to Cite
Matchock, R. L. and Susman, E. J. (2006), Family composition and menarcheal age: Anti-inbreeding strategies. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 18: 481–491. doi: 10.1002/ajhb.20508
- Issue published online: 20 JUN 2006
- Article first published online: 20 JUN 2006
- Manuscript Accepted: 3 JAN 2006
- Manuscript Received: 12 OCT 2005
Family composition (e.g., the absence of a father) is associated with pubertal timing in women, although the socioendocrinology of the human primate is poorly understood. To better understand social influences on sexual maturation, retrospective data were collected on menarcheal age and family composition from a sample of approximately 1,938 participants from a college population. Absence of a biological father, the presence of half- and step-brothers, and living in an urban environment were associated with earlier menarche. The presence of sisters in the household while growing up, especially older sisters, was associated with delayed menarche. Menarcheal age was not affected by number of brothers in the household, nor was there an effect of birth order. Body weight and race were also associated with menarche. The present findings advance the literature as they are suggestive of putative human pheromones that modulate sexual maturation to promote gene survival and prevent inbreeding, as occurs in rodents and nonhuman primates. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 18:481–491, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.