The genetic constitution of Afro-derived Brazilian populations is barely studied. To improve that knowledge, we investigated the AluYAP element and five Y-chromosome STRs (DYS19, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, and DYS393) to estimate ethnic male contribution in the constitution of four Brazilian quilombos remnants: Mocambo, Rio das Rãs, Kalunga, and Riacho de Sacutiaba. Results indicated significant differences among communities, corroborating historical information about the Brazilian settlement. We concluded that besides African contribution, there was a great European participation in the constitution of these four populations and that observed haplotype variability could be explained by gene flow to quilombos remnants and mutational events in microsatellites (STRs). Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.