Objectives. In this study, we aimed to identify ancestry informative haplotypes and make interethnic admixture estimates using X-chromosome markers.

Methods. A significant sample (461 individuals) of European, African, and Native American populations was analyzed, and four linkage groups were identified. The data obtained were used to describe the ancestral contribution of populations from four different geographical regions of Brazil (745 individuals).

Results. The global interethnic admixture estimates of the four mixed populations under investigation were calculated applying all the 24 insertion/deletion (INDEL) markers. In the North region, a larger Native Americans ancestry was observed (42%). The Northeast and Southeast regions had smaller Native American contribution (27% in both of them). In the South region, there was a large European contribution (46%).

Conclusions. The estimates obtained are compatible with expectations for a colonization model with biased admixture between European men (one X chromosome) and Native American and African women (two X chromosomes), so the 24 X-INDEL panel described here can be a useful to make admixture interethnic estimates in Brazilian populations. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.