SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

LITERATURE CITED

  • Aspray TJ,Mugusi F,Rashid S,Whiting D,Edwards R,Alberti KG, Unwin NC. 2000. Rural and urban differences in diabetes prevalence in Tanzania: the role of obesity, physical inactivity and urban living. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94: 637644.
  • Assah FK,Ekelund U,Brage S,Mbanya JC,Wareham NJ. 2011. Urbanization, physical activity, and metabolic health in sub-Saharan Africa. Diabetes Care 34: 491496.
  • Assah FK,Ekelund U,Brage S,Wright A,Mbanya JC,Wareham NJ. 2011. Accuracy and validity of a combined heart rate and motion sensor for the measurement of free-living physical activity energy expenditure in adults in Cameroon. Int J Epidemiol 40: 112120.
  • Biss K,Taylor CB,Lewis LA,Mikkelson B,Hussey LK,Jey-Ho K. 1970. The Masai's protection against atherosclerosis. Pathol Microbiol (Basel) 35: 198204.
  • Brage S,Brage N,Ekelund U,Luan J,Franks PW,Froberg K,Wareham NJ. 2006. Effect of combined movement and heart rate monitor placement on physical activity estimates during treadmill locomotion and free-living. Eur J Appl Physiol 96: 517524.
  • Brage S,Brage N,Franks PW,Ekelund U,Wong MY,Andersen LB,Froberg K,Wareham NJ. 2004. Branched equation modeling of simultaneous accelerometry and heart rate monitoring improves estimate of directly measured physical activity energy expenditure. J Appl Physiol 96: 343351.
  • Brage S,Ekelund U,Brage N,Hennings MA,Froberg K,Franks PW,Wareham NJ. 2007. Hierarchy of individual calibration levels for heart rate and accelerometry to measure physical activity. J Appl Physiol 103: 682692.
  • Cavagna GA,Willems PA,Legramandi MA,Heglund NC. 2002. Pendular energy transduction within the step in human walking. J Exp Biol 205 (Part 21): 34133422.
  • Celis-Morales CA,Perez-Bravo F,Ibanes L,Sanzana R,Hormazabal E,Ulloa N,Calvo C,Bailey ME,Gill JM. 2011. Insulin resistance in Chileans of European and indigenous descent: evidence for an ethnicity x environment interaction. PLoS One 6: e24690.
  • Christensen DL,Eis J,Hansen AW,Larsson MW,Mwaniki DL,Kilonzo B,Tetens I,Boit MK,Kaduka L,Borch-Johnsen K,Friis H. 2008. Obesity and regional fat distribution in Kenyan populations: impact of ethnicity and urbanization. Ann Hum Biol 35: 232249.
  • Christensen DL,Friis H,Mwaniki DL,Kilonzo B,Tetens I,Boit MK,Omondi B,Kaduka L,Borch-Johnsen K. 2009. Prevalence of glucose intolerance and associated risk factors in rural and urban populations of different ethnic groups in Kenya. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 84: 303310.
  • Church TS,Earnest CP,Skinner JS,Blair SN. 2007. Effects of different doses of physical activity on cardiorespiratory fitness among sedentary, overweight or obese postmenopausal women with elevated blood pressure: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 297: 20812091.
  • Darr KC,Bassett DR,Morgan BJ,Thomas DP. 1988. Effects of age and training status on heart rate recovery after peak exercise. Am J Physiol 254(2, Part 2): H340H343.
  • Davies CT. 1973. Relationship of maximum aerobic power output to productivity and absenteeism of East African sugar cane workers. Br J Ind Med 30: 146154.
  • Davies CT,Van Haaren JP. 1973. Maximum aerobic power and body composition in healthy East African older male and female subjects. Am J Phys Anthropol 39: 395401.
  • di Prampero PE,Cerretelli P. 1969. Maximal muscular power (aerobic and anaerobic) in African Natives. Ergonomics 12: 5159.
  • Ekblom B,Gjessing E. 1968. Maximal oxygen uptake of the Easter Island population. J Appl Physiol 25: 124129.
  • Ezenwaka CE,Akanji AO,Akanji BO,Unwin NC,Adejuwon CA. 1997. The prevalence of insulin resistance and other cardiovascular disease risk factors in healthy elderly southwestern Nigerians. Atherosclerosis 128: 201211.
  • Forrest KY,Bunker CH,Kriska AM,Ukoli FA,Huston SL,Markovic N. 2001. Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors in a developing population. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33: 15981604.
  • Gill JM. 2007. Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin resistance: a short update. Curr Opin Lipidol 18: 4752.
  • Gill JM,Malkova D. 2006. Physical activity, fitness and cardiovascular disease risk in adults: interactions with insulin resistance and obesity. Clin Sci (Lond) 110: 409425.
  • Hansen AW,Christensen DL,Larsson MW,Eis J,Christensen T,Friis H,Mwaniki DL,Kilonzo B,Boit MK,Borch-Johnsen K,Tetens I. 2011. Dietary patterns, food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya. Public Health Nutr 14: 16711679.
  • Heglund NC,Willems PA,Penta M,Cavagna GA. 1995. Energy-saving gait mechanics with head-supported loads. Nature 375: 5254.
  • Heini AF,Minghelli G,Diaz E,Prentice AM,Schutz Y. 1996. Free-living energy expenditure assessed by two different methods in rural Gambian men. Eur J Clin Nutr 50: 284289.
  • Helmrich SP,Ragland DR,Leung RW,Paffenbarger RS,Jr. 1991. Physical activity and reduced occurrence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 325: 147152.
  • Hendelman D,Miller K,Baggett C,Debold E,Freedson P. 2000. Validity of accelerometry for the assessment of moderate intensity physical activity in the field. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32( 9 Suppl): S442S449.
  • Henry CJ. 2005. Basal metabolic rate studies in humans: measurement and development of new equations. Public Health Nutr 8: 11331152.
  • Henry CJ,Rees DG. 1991. New predictive equations for the estimation of basal metabolic rate in tropical peoples. Eur J Clin Nutr 45: 177185.
  • InterAct Consortium. Validity of a short questionnaire to assess physical activity in 10 European countries. 2012. Eur J Epidemiol 27: 1525.
  • Kruger HS,Venter CS,Vorster HH,Margetts BM. 2002. Physical inactivity is the major determinant of obesity in black women in the North West Province, South Africa: the THUSA study. Transition and health during urbanization of South Africa. Nutrition 18: 422427.
  • Maloiy GM,Heglund NC,Prager LM,Cavagna GA,Taylor CR. 1986. Energetic cost of carrying loads: have African women discovered an economic way? Nature 319: 668669.
  • Mann GV,Shaffer RD,Rich A. 1965. Physical fitness and immunity to heart-disease in Masai. Lancet 2: 13081310.
  • Mbalilaki JA,Hellenius ML,Masesa Z,Hostmark AT,Sundquist J,Stromme SB. 2007. Physical activity and blood lipids in rural and urban Tanzanians. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 17: 344348.
  • Mbalilaki JA,Masesa Z,Stromme SB,Hostmark AT,Sundquist J,Wandell P,Rosengren A,Hellenius ML. 2010. Daily energy expenditure and cardiovascular risk in Masai, rural and urban Bantu Tanzanians. Br J Sports Med 44: 121126.
  • McLarty DG,Swai AB,Kitange HM,Masuki G,Mtinangi BL,Kilima PM,Makene WJ,Chuwa LM,Alberti KG. 1989. Prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in rural Tanzania. Lancet 1: 871875.
  • Minghelli G,Schutz Y,Charbonnier A,Whitehead R,Jequier E. 1990. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure and basal metabolic rate measured in a whole-body indirect calorimeter in Gambian men. Am J Clin Nutr 51: 563570.
  • Rode A,Shephard RJ. 1984. Ten years of “civilization”: fitness of Canadian Inuit. J Appl Physiol 56: 14721477.
  • Schofield WN. 1985. Predicting basal metabolic rate, new standards and review of previous work. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 39 ( Suppl 1): 541.
  • Shetty PS,Henry CJ,Black AE,Prentice AM. 1996. Energy requirements of adults: an update on basal metabolic rates (BMRs) and physical activity levels (PALs). Eur J Clin Nutr 50( Suppl 1): S11S23.
  • Singh J,Prentice AM,Diaz E,Coward WA,Ashford J,Sawyer M,Whitehead RG. 1989. Energy expenditure of Gambian women during peak agricultural activity measured by the doubly labeled water method. Br J Nutr 62: 315329.
  • Sobngwi E, Mbanya JC, Unwin NC, Kengne AP, Fezeu L, Minkoulou EM, Aspray TJ, Alberti KG. 2002. Physical activity and its relationship with obesity, hypertension and diabetes in urban and rural Cameroon. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26: 10091016.
  • Stegle O,Fallert SV,MacKay DJ,Brage S. 2008. Gaussian process robust regression for noisy heart rate data. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 55: 21432151.
  • Tanaka H,Monahan KD,Seals DR. 2001. Age-predicted maximal heart rate revisited. J Am Coll Cardiol 37: 153156.
  • Wareham NJ. 2001. Commentary: measuring physical activity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Int J Epidemiol 30: 13691370.