Long-term changes in BMI and adiposity rebound among girls from Kraków (Poland) over the last 30 years (from 1983 to 2010)


Correspondence to: Dr. Małgorzata Kowal, Department of Human Biology, University School of Physical Education, 31-571 Krakow, Poland. E-mail: malgorzata.kowal@awf.krakow.pl



Early adiposity rebound (AR, below 5 years) is an important predictor of adult obesity.


The main purpose of this study was to explore changes in body weight and height, BMI, body fat, and AR timing in girls from Krakow within the last 3 decades.


1,970 girls were measured in 2010. Using the results of body height, weight and skin folds measurements, the BMI and %BF was calculated. The LMS method was used to constructed BMI and %BF centiles. Three fractions were distinguished in individual age groups of the subjects—below the 15th percentile (underweight girls), 50th percentile and above 85th percentile (overweight girls). These data were compared with the results from previous survey series (1983 and 2000). The mean age of the menarche onset were calculated by means of the probit method.


The girls from last series are taller and heavier than girls measured in 1983. Before the time of AR, girls from last series have lowest BMI and %BF than girls from the first series. In spite of this, all girls measured in 2010 have the time of AR earlier than girls measured in 1983. The girls from the last series of measurements showed also acceleration of sexual maturation and the average menarche age was the earliest in them and equalled 12.68 years.


AR cannot be explained only by changes in body adiposity. Early AR could be a marker of acceleration of development already in an early postnatal ontogenesis. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 25:300–306, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.