Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome structure at the mediterranean and atlantic façades of the iberian peninsula

Authors

  • Cristina Santos,

    1. Unitat Antropologia Biològica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
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    • C.S. and R.F. have contributed equally to this work.

  • Rosa Fregel,

    1. Department of Genetics, University of La Laguna, Spain
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    • C.S. and R.F. have contributed equally to this work.

  • Vicente M. Cabrera,

    1. Department of Genetics, University of La Laguna, Spain
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  • Luis Álvarez,

    1. Unitat Antropologia Biològica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    2. IPATIMUP, Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
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  • Jose M. Larruga,

    1. Department of Genetics, University of La Laguna, Spain
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  • Amanda Ramos,

    1. Unitat Antropologia Biològica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    2. Centre of Research in Natural Resources (CIRN), Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada, Portugal
    3. Molecular and Cellular Biology Institute (IBMC), University of Porto, 4150-180 Porto, Portugal
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  • Miguel A. López,

    1. Clinical Management and Biotechnology Unit, Torre Cárdena Hospital, Almería, Spain
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  • María Pilar Aluja,

    1. Unitat Antropologia Biològica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
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  • Ana M. González

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Genetics, University of La Laguna, Spain
    • Correspondence to: Cristina Santos, Unitat Antropologia Biològica, Dep. Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, Facultat Biociències Edifici C, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain. E-mail: cristina.santos@uab.cat

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ABSTRACT

Objectives

The aim of this study is to analyze mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome lineages in a range of Atlantic and Mediterranean populations of the Iberian Peninsula in search of genetic differences between both façades and to uncover the most probable geographic origin and coalescence ages of lineages.

Methods

The control region of mitochondrial DNA and haplogroup diagnostic positions were analyzed in 575 subjects and Y-chromosome markers were typed in 260 unrelated males. Moreover, previously published data were compiled and used in the analyses.

Results

The level of genetic structure deduced from uniparental markers for the Iberian Peninsula was weak, with stronger Atlantic versus Mediterranean than North to South differentiation and larger diversities in the South. In general, mitochondrial DNA haplogroups had mainly Paleolithic and Mesolithic coalescences in Europe, although some of them, ruling out drift effects, seem to have younger implantation in Central Europe and the Atlantic areas than in the Mediterranean (I, J, J2a, T1, and W) while others as N1 and X could have reached the Iberian Peninsula at the Neolithic transition. On the other hand, younger coalescence ages are being proposed for the arriving or spread of the bulk of Y-chromosome lineages in Europe.

Conclusions

The major haplotypic affinities found for all the Iberian Peninsula regions were always with North Africa and the Atlantic Islands. These results draw an Atlantic network that clearly resembles those of the Megalithic Copper and Bronze cultures at this part of Europe. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 26:130–141, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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