Risk factors for sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders among self-employed Dutch farmers: A case-control study
Article first published online: 8 FEB 2006
Copyright © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company
American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Volume 49, Issue 3, pages 204–214, March 2006
How to Cite
Hartman, E., Oude Vrielink, H. H.E., Huirne, R. B.M. and Metz, J. H.M. (2006), Risk factors for sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders among self-employed Dutch farmers: A case-control study. Am. J. Ind. Med., 49: 204–214. doi: 10.1002/ajim.20276
- Issue published online: 8 FEB 2006
- Article first published online: 8 FEB 2006
- Manuscript Accepted: 12 OCT 2005
- The ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality
- Institute for Risk Management in Agriculture (IRMA)
- upper extremity;
- sick leave;
In Dutch agriculture, musculoskeletal disorders are a main cause of sick leave. Among self-employed insured farmers, neck, shoulder, upper extremity, and back disorders accounted for 30% of the claims for sick leave of less than 1 year This case-control study set out to identify and quantify risk factors for sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders among self-employed Dutch farmers.
Sick leave, claimed at an insurance company from 1998 to 2001 for back (SL-BP, n = 198) or neck/shoulder/upper extremity trouble (SL-EXT, n = 89) was analyzed; the controls did not file any claim in this period (n = 816).
Multivariate analysis showed that risk factors for SL-BP were increased age (OR = 1.06 per year, CI = 1.04–1.09), body mass index (BMI) >27 (OR = 1.93, CI = 1.2–3.2), smoking (OR = 1.90, CI = 1.2–2.9), former pain (OR = 3.28, CI = 2.1–5.1), tractor driving >1,000 hr/year (OR = 2.44, CI = 1.0–6.4), and “high work pace and workload” (OR = 1.59, CI = 1.0–2.4). SL-EXT was associated with pig (OR = 3.63, CI = 1.4–9.7), mushroom (OR = 6.14, CI = 1.4–27.2), or dairy/pig farming (OR = 4.56, 1.1–19.5), while age (OR = 1.10, CI = 1.06–1.14), smoking (OR = 1.79, CI = 1.0–3.2), and former pain (OR = 3.37, CI = 1.9–6.1) were also contributing.
Prevention of sick leave of self-employed farmers should focus on life style (obesity, smoking), reducing older farmers' exposure to physical load, exposure to long-term tractor driving. Specific attention should be paid to animal and mushroom farmers. Am. J. Ind. Med. 49:204–214, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.