Mention of company names or products does not constitute endorsement by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
Article first published online: 31 AUG 2009
This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Volume 52, Issue 10, pages 751–761, October 2009
How to Cite
Waters, M. A., Grajewski, B., Pinkerton, L. E., Hein, M. J. and Zivkovich, Z. (2009), Development of historical exposure estimates of cosmic radiation and circadian rhythm disruption for cohort studies of Pan Am flight attendants. Am. J. Ind. Med., 52: 751–761. doi: 10.1002/ajim.20738
This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.
- Issue published online: 8 SEP 2009
- Article first published online: 31 AUG 2009
- Manuscript Accepted: 6 JUL 2009
- cosmic radiation;
- flight attendants;
- exposure assessment;
- flight crew;
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is conducting cohort studies of flight crew employed by the former Pan American World Airways company (Pan Am) as part of an effort to examine flight crew workplace exposures and health effects. Flight crew are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation and to disruption of circadian rhythm when flying across multiple time zones. Methods exist to calculate cosmic radiation effective doses on individual flights; however, only work histories which provided an employee's domicile (home base) history rather than a record of every flight flown were available.
We developed a method for estimating individual cumulative domicile-based cosmic radiation effective doses and two metrics for circadian rhythm disruption for each flight attendant: cumulative times zones crossed and cumulative travel time during the standard sleep interval.
The domicile-exposure matrix developed was used to calculate exposure estimates for a cohort mortality study of former Pan Am flight attendants. Am. J. Ind. Med. 52:751–761, 2009. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.