Disclosure Statement: The authors report no conflicts of interests.
Interaction between noise and cigarette smoking for the outcome of hearing loss among women: A population-based study
Version of Record online: 5 JUN 2013
Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Volume 56, Issue 10, pages 1213–1220, October 2013
How to Cite
Ferrite, S., Santana, V. S. and Marshall, S. W. (2013), Interaction between noise and cigarette smoking for the outcome of hearing loss among women: A population-based study. Am. J. Ind. Med., 56: 1213–1220. doi: 10.1002/ajim.22142
- Issue online: 3 SEP 2013
- Version of Record online: 5 JUN 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 23 OCT 2012
- National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). Grant Numbers: 522621/96-1, 521226/98-8, 301533/2008-3
- Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES). Grant Number: 3875/07-5
- cross-sectional studies;
- noise-induced hearing loss;
- occupational health;
We investigated the interaction between exposure to noise and smoking in relation to prevalence of hearing loss among women.
A sample of women aged 20–49 years (n = 1,723) from a population-based cross-sectional study carried out in Brazil in 2006 was examined. Hearing loss was assessed using a yes–no validated question. Biological interaction was analyzed using the additive scale and measured with interaction contrast ratio (ICR) and assessment of dose–response relationship.
The combined effect of exposure to noise and cigarette smoking on hearing loss (adjusted prevalence ratio (PRadj) = 3.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.81, 5.52) was greater than expected based on the additive single effects of smoking (PRadj = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.81) and noise (PRadj = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.86, 3.82). ICR estimates were not statistically significant. The prevalence of hearing loss among noise-exposed women increased with duration of smoking (P trend = 0.026), number of cigarettes smoked per day (P trend = 0.034), cumulative tobacco use (P trend = 0.030), and early age at smoking initiation (P trend = 0.047).
Noise and smoking may have a combined effect on hearing loss but further studies are still needed. A dose–response relation of smoking for the noise effect among women is suggested. Am. J. Ind. Med. 56:1213–1220, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.