Anti-clockwise rotating shift work and health: Would you prefer 3-shift or 4-shift operation?

Authors

  • Dr. Daniel Mauss MD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Occupational Medicine, Allianz Germany, Munich, Germany
    • Mannheim Institute of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Mannheim Medical Faculty, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany
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  • David Litaker PhD, MD,

    1. Mannheim Institute of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Mannheim Medical Faculty, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany
    2. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Ohio Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland
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  • Marc N. Jarczok MSSc,

    1. Mannheim Institute of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Mannheim Medical Faculty, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany
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  • Jian Li MD, PhD,

    1. Institute of Occupational and Social Medicine, University of Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany
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  • Jos A. Bosch PhD,

    1. Mannheim Institute of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Mannheim Medical Faculty, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany
    2. Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
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  • Joachim E. Fischer MD, MPH

    1. Mannheim Institute of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Mannheim Medical Faculty, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany
    2. Competence Center for Social Medicine and Occupational Health Promotion, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany
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  • Disclosure Statement: Prof. Dr. Joachim E. Fischer is the major shareholder of HealthVision Ltd., which was responsible for data collection.

Correspondence to: Dr. Daniel Mauss, MD, Mannheim Medical Faculty, Mannheim Institute of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Heidelberg University, Ludolf-Krehl-Strasse 7-11, D-68167 Mannheim, Germany. E-mail: daniel.mauss@allianz.de

Abstract

Background

We explored the association between work schedules involving nightshifts and selected measures of health and whether these associations differed among those working in either 3- or 4-shift cycles.

Methods

Employees at a German industrial company who worked on a fixed daytime schedule or on one involving nightshifts were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Work schedules involving a nightshift were organized into either 3 or 4 shifts rotated anti-clockwise on a weekly basis. Health characteristics included a range of clinical and physiological measures and self-reported data on stress and sleep quality. We assessed the independent association of work schedules involving any nightshift and these health characteristics in separate regression analyses, adjusting for age, gender, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

Results

Nightshift work (N = 133) in general and 3-shift-work (N = 53) in particular was associated with decreased sleep quality (P < 0.001). Compared to those working daytime (N = 632), employees working on a 3-shift cycle had higher adjusted odds of meeting the definition of metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.56 [1.38, 4.75]). Employees working 4-shift cycles were somewhat less likely to have metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.22 [0.73, 2.05]) and had higher parasympathetic activity measured by heart rate variability (OR = 2.20 [1.04, 4.63]).

Conclusions

Our data suggest important relationships between shift schedule and a selected group of objective and subjective health measures. Additional research that further clarifies potential mechanisms underlying these relationships is needed. Am. J. Ind. Med. 56:599–608, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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