Acrocallosal syndrome (ACS) is an autosomal recessive condition, characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum, pre- and postaxial polydactyly, minor craniofacial anomalies, and, in most patients, severe psychomotor retardation. We here report on three patients with ACS demonstrating a spectrum from mild to severe involvement. Two patients had only mild to moderate mental retardation at the age of 2½ and 4 years, respectively, with surprisingly good speech development. The third patient was severely affected and died at age 7 days because of persistent apnea. All three patients had agenesis of the corpus callosum, and large intracranial cysts, which in the third case was confirmed as a large arachnoid cyst at autopsy. Cranial cysts were also seen in 10/34 published cases of ACS. Thus, intracerebral cysts are a common finding in ACS and may serve in differentiating ACS from Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.