Teratogenesis of holoprosencephaly

Authors

  • M. Michael Cohen Jr.,

    Corresponding author
    1. Departments of Oral & Maxillofacial Sciences, Pediatrics, Community Health and Epidemiology, Health Services Administration, and Sociology & Social Anthropology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    • Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 3J5.
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  • Kohei Shiota

    1. Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Kyoto University Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan
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Abstract

Teratogenic causes of holoprosencephaly are critically assessed. A brief general review of holoprosencephaly is followed by four tables summarizing etiologic factors. Subjects evaluated here include: 1) maternal diabetes; 2) ethyl alcohol; 3) retinoic acid; 4) mutated genes and teratogens involving the sonic hedgehog signaling network and cholesterol biosynthesis; and 5) cholesterol trafficking, sterol adducts, target tissue response, and sterol sensing domain. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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