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Keywords:

  • cnidarians;
  • bilaterians;
  • head organization genes;
  • craniofacial genetics;
  • craniofacial derivatives;
  • neural crest;
  • neurulation;
  • multisited neural tube closure;
  • anencephaly;
  • meroacrania;
  • holoacrania;
  • encephalocele;
  • holoprosencephaly;
  • SHH;
  • craniosynostosis;
  • fibroblast growth factor receptors;
  • TWIST;
  • hypertelorism;
  • branchial arch development;
  • hemifacial microsomia;
  • Treacher Collins syndrome;
  • primary and secondary palate embryology;
  • cleft lip;
  • cleft palate;
  • Robin sequence;
  • Robin complexes

Abstract

Malformations of the craniofacial region are reviewed with respect to evolutionary, embryonic, genetic, and clinical perspectives under the following headings: How Old Is Our Head?, Head Organization Genes, Genetics of Craniofacial Anomalies, Craniofacial Derivatives, Anencephaly, Cephalocele, Holoprosencephaly, Craniosynostosis, Hypertelorism, Branchial Arch Anomalies, and Orofacial Clefting. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.