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Keywords:

  • abnormal facial expression;
  • hydronephrosis;
  • hydroureter;
  • urinary obstruction;
  • abnormal bladder;
  • autosomal dominant

Abstract

Seven patients (4 females, and 3 males) born in unrelated families, one of them consanguineous (first cousins), were affected by peculiar facies and gestures while smiling and crying, and by hydronephrosis, hydroureter and intravesical stenosis of the ureter, abnormal caliber of the urether in the prostatic and membranous portions, urethral valves, abnormal bladder with trabeculation, and diverticula associated with severe hypertrophy of the mucosa with sclerotic changes. The genetic analysis of these families indicates that the condition is probably autosomal dominant, with variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance. The syndrome represents alteration of facial and urinary developmental fields.

The peculiar facies allows early recognition of the condition, and this can be helpful for early assessment and treatment, leading perhaps to a better prognosis.