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Keywords:

  • hemifacial microsomia;
  • pedigree data;
  • ear malformations;
  • recurrence risks;
  • preauricular tags;
  • nodes;
  • genetic counseling

Abstract

Ear malformations occur per se or together with other congenital anomalies. Many syndromes with ear malformations have been described. We have studied propositi with hemifacial microsomia (HFM) or Goldenhar syndrome (GS), also called oculoauriculovertebral “dysplasia” (OAV). In addition to ear malformations some individuals may have a small and/or malformed mandible, epibulbar, or conjunctival lipodermoids and anomalies of the cervical spine. Other malformations may also be seen. At present, the cause of these disorders is unclear.

Here we present pedigree data on 97 propositi, 44 of whom had a family history of the same or similar anomaly. First-degree relatives were most often affected (35/433, 8%). Of 176 sibs tabulated, 11 (6%) were considered affected. The pattern of occurrence in many families suggested multifactorial determination, although other interpretations are possible. The occurrence of differing anomalies within a family suggests that the disorders constitute a single entity. The most frequent anomaly was a mild ear malformation (preauricular node or tag). This suggests a broad phenotypic spectrum. These data are useful for purposes of genetic counseling.