Segregation analysis of the offspring of balanced translocation carriers was performed on 327 pedigrees collated from published sources and personal communications. Correction was made for bias of ascertainment. Translocations studied involved chromosome arms 1p, 4q, 6p, 6q, 7p, 8p, 10p, 10q, 11q, 14q, 16q, and 17p. Findings included similar rates of occurrence of abnormal liveborn offspring in male and female carriers except for a reduction of risk in male carriers of translocations segregating by 3:1 mode; an elevated risk of fetal loss (spontaneous abortions and stillbirths) in female carriers of 6q, 11q, and 16q translocations compared to male carriers of these translocations; a fetal loss rate exceeding general population estimates in female carriers of 6q and 10q translocations and in male carriers of 6p, 8p, 10q, and 14q translocations including a rate of nearly 50% among female 6q translocation carriers; a higher than expected number of balanced carriers among liveborn offspring; and a low risk of abnormal liveborn children among carriers ascertained by means other than through unbalanced probands. We propose that some translocation carriers may be helped by consideration of more specific empiric risk figures than have traditionally been used.