Isochromosome 12p mosaicism (Pallister mosaic aneuploidy or Pallister-Killian syndrome): Report of 11 cases



We report on 11 cases of isochromosome 12p mosaicism (or Pallister mosaic aneuploidy syndrome) in which the isochromosome is usually absent in cultured lymphocytes but present in fibroblasts. The patients range in age from a 22-week-gestation fetus to a 45-year-old man. They have a distinct pattern of anomalies which enables one to make a diagnosis based on clinical manifestations alone. Craniofacial manifestations include “coarse” face with prominent forehead, spars-ity of scalp hair, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, flat bridge of nose, and highly arched palate. Affected newborn infants are profoundly hypotonic with sparsity of scalp hair especially bitemporally and a prominent forehead. Most have accessory nipples. Birth weight and growth parameters are usually normal; however, some newborn infants are unusually large. In infancy, the facial appearance becomes “coarse,” hypotonia persists, and seizures may occur. As adults, growth may be normal, scalp hair is thicker and the mandible becomes prominent. Most have a generalized pigmentary dysplasia which may be evident with a Wood's lamp only. All cases have been sporadic and there is no consistent pattern of advanced parental age.