• “inverse” smile;
  • neurogenic bladder;
  • constipation;
  • autosomal recessive inheritance


Between 1965 and 1986 we saw 36 children with enuresis and urinary tract infection in association with “inversion” of facial expression when laughing. Urologic work-up of these patients disclosed characteristic findings of mild neuropathic bladder in all cases, with severe urinary tract damage in most of them. The clear association of distortion in facial expression and neuropathic bladder with resultant damage to the genitourinary tract should prompt urological evaluation of individuals with “inversion” of facial expression. About two thirds of the patients also had moderate to severe constipation. We suggest the term urofacial syndrome for this disorder. The occurrence of the disorder in multiple sibs, normal parents, increased parental consanguinity, and equal sex ratio indicate autosomal recessive inheritance.