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Keywords:

  • Kleeblattschädel;
  • cloverleaf skull anomaly;
  • thanatophoric dysplasia;
  • radiographic;
  • histopathologic diagnostic criteria;
  • bone dysplasia

Abstract

Nine infants with thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) and cloverleaf skull (CS) are reported. Twenty-two previously published CSTD cases are reviewed. These CSTD cases are compared to cases of TD without CS. U is concluded that there are two types of TD: type l, with curved femora and very flat vertebral bodies; and type 2, with straight femora and taller vertebral bodies. Consistent but subtle histopathological characteris-tics differentiate the two types. Only a very few type l cases have CS, and the CS is mild. Almost all type 2 cases have severe CS.