Acquired monosomy 7 is a frequent finding in myelodysplastic syndromes, including acute myelogenous leukemia. A subset of these patients has been described with an apparently distinct condition: myelodysplasia and leukemia syndrome with monosomy 7 (MLSM7). We report 2 brothers, 3 and 5 years of age, with MLSM7 and review other reports of familial occurrence. Genetic factors appear to be important in the cause of MLSM7, but the reported families do not fit neatly into any monogenic pattern. Recognition of the frequently familial nature of this condition requires hematological evaluation and genetic counseling for the families of patients with MLSM7.