• neuropsychological impairment;
  • sex chromosome abnormalities


Sixty-seven adolescents participated in this protocol, including 42 with sex chromosome abnormalities and 25 controls. Results from a battery of neuropsychological tests indicated karyotype specific patterns of neuropsychological impairment: (1) 47,XXY boys had unimpaired intelligence but reduced abilities in verbal fluency and reading; (2) 47,XXX girls experienced reduced general intelligence accompanied by impaired scores on individual tests of attention, concept formation, spatial thinking, verbal fluency, and academic skills, while retention of memorized information was a relative strength; (3) among the 45,X girls average intelligence level was also reduced along with scores on tests of attention, concept formation, verbal fluency, spatial thinking, and academic skills, and an atypical pattern of hand dominance was identified; (4) test scores in the group of mosaic females did not differ from those of controls. Test scores and patterns of personal adaptation were quite variable in all groups; while eight nonmosaic propositi required intensive special education assistance in their public schooling, eight others have attended college.© 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.