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Keywords:

  • Schinzel-Giedion syndrome;
  • midface hypoplasia;
  • hydronephrosis;
  • skeletal dysplasia

Abstract

Three fetuses with normal chromosomes were found to have uni- or bilateral hydronephrosis during the third trimester of pregnancy. At birth, they presented with coarse face, hypertelorism, and a deep groove under the eyes. Fontanelles and sutures were wide open. Genital abnormalities were present in 2 cases. Skeletal radiographs showed delayed bone maturation, broad and dense ribs, and a wide synchondrosis between the exoccipital and supraoccipital bones. The combination of such findings suggested the diagnosis of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome. Two patients died soon after birth, whereas the third one developed severe mental and motor retardation with seizures and spasticity, and died at 18 months.

Schinzel-Giedion syndrome is rare and likely to be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. So far, 13 well-documented cases have been reported allowing major and minor traits of the syndrome to be distinguished. Since no genetic marker is available, the prenatal diagnosis of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome relies on ultrasound examination, especially detection of renal abnormalities. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.