Phenotype/Karyotype correlations of Y chromosome aneuploidy with emphasis on structural aberrations in postnatally diagnosed cases

Authors

  • Dr. Lillian Y. F. Hsu

    Corresponding author
    1. Prenatal Diagnosis Laboratory of New York City, Medical and Health Research Association of New York City, Inc., and Department of Pediatrics, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York
    • Prenatal Diagnosis Laboratory of N.Y.C., 455 First Avenue, Room 027, New York, NY 10016
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Abstract

Over 600 cases with a Y aneuploidy (other than non-mosaic 47,XYY) were reviewed for phenotype/karyotype correlations. Except for 93 prenatally diagnosed cases of mosaicism 45,X/46,XY (79 cases), 45,X/47,XYY (8 cases), and 45,X/46,XY/47,XYY (6 cases), all other cases were ascertained postnatally. Special emphasis was placed on structural abnormalities. This review includes 11 cases of 46,XYp-; 90 cases of 46,XYq- (52 cases non-mosaic; 38 cases 45,X mosaic); 34 cases of 46,X,r(Y) (9 cases non-mosaic and 25 cases 45,X mosaic); 8 cases of 46,X,i(Yp) (4 non-mosaic and 4 mosaic with 45,X); 12 cases of 46,X,i(Yq) (7 non-mosaic and 5 mosaic); 44 cases of 46,X,idic(Yq); 80 cases of 46,X, idic(Yp) (74 cases had breakpoints at Yq11 and 6 cases had breakpoints at Yq12); 130 cases of Y/autosome translocations (50 cases with a Y/A reciprocal translocation, 20 cases of Y/A translocation in 45,X males, 60 cases of Y/Dp or Y/Gp translocations); 52 cases of Y/X translocations [47 cases with der(X); 4 cases with der(Y), and 1 case with 45,X with a der(X)], 7 cases of Y/Y translocations; 151 postnatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XY; 14 postnatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/47,XYY; 18 cases of 45,X/46,XY/47,XYY; and 93 aforementioned prenatally diagnosed cases with a 45,X cell line.

It is clear that in the absence of a 45,X cell line, the presence of an entire Yp or a region of it including SRY would lead to a male phenotype in an individual with a Y aneuploidy, whereas the lack of Yp invariably leads to a female phenotype with typical or atypical Ullrich-Turner syndrome (UTS). Once there is a 45,X cell line, regardless of whether there is Yp, Yq, or both Yp and Yq, or even a free Y chromosome in other cell line, there is an increased chance for that individual to be a phenotypic female with UTS manifestations or to have ambiguous external genitalia.

This review once again shows a major difference in reported phenotypes between postnatally and prenatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XY, 45,X/47,XYY, and 45,X/46,XY/47,XYY mosaicism. It appears that ascertainment bias can explain the fact that all known patients with postnatal diagnosis are phenotypically abnormal, while over 90% of prenatally diagnosed cases are reported to have a normal male phenotype.

Further elucidation of major Y genes and their clinical significance can be expected in the rapidly expanding gene mapping projects. More, consequently better, phenotype/karyotype correlations can be anticipated at both the cytogenetic and the molecular level. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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