• auriculo-condylar syndrome;
  • ear malformation;
  • congenital auricular cleft;
  • question mark ear;
  • mandibular condyle hypoplasia;
  • micrognathia;
  • microstomia;
  • temporomandibular joint abnormality


We report on 20 individuals in 4 kindreds with auriculo-condylar syndrome (ACS), an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital auricular clefts, mandibular condyle hypoplasia, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) abnormalities, micrognathia, microstomia, and a round facial appearance with prominent cheeks. Affected individuals have varying degrees of glossoptosis, respiratory distress, masticatory abnormalities, and malocclusion. Data from these families and those previously described suggest that this is a unique disorder with widely variable expression, including lack of obvious external anomalies in some individuals and severe ear malformations, condyle agenesis, and characteristic facial features in others. Early recognition of this condition should permit appropriate counseling and anticipatory guidance, including evaluation for reconstructive surgery and orthodontia and intervention for upper airway obstruction and sleep apnea. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.