Axenfeld–Rieger syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern and is characterized by anomalies of the anterior segment of the eye and systemic signs including craniofacial dysmorphic features and cardiac defects. The disorder is genetically heterogeneous and one causative gene, FOXC1, is located on chromosome 6p25. Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) is a congenital ocular disorder in which there is a failure of the normal regression of the primary vitreous and a proliferation of fibrous tissue from the remnants of the primary vitreous. Deletions of chromosome 6p25 have been reported in a small number of patients with Axenfeld–Rieger syndrome; however, no case of chromosome 6p25 deletion has been reported with PHPV. We report a newborn girl who had both Axenfeld–Rieger syndrome and the combined type of PHPV, in whom the G-banding and spectral karyotyping revealed a 6p monosomy of terminal deletion with a breakpoint at chromosome 6p25.1. The karyotype was 46,XX,del(6)(p25.1). We conclude that PHPV in the context of Axenfeld–Rieger syndrome can be caused by 6p25 terminal deletion. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.