• endochondral bone;
  • membrane bone;
  • osteoclastogenesis;
  • osteoimmunology;
  • WNT signaling;
  • cartilaginous tumors;
  • bone tumors;
  • osteopetrosis;
  • osteoporosis;
  • collagenopathies;
  • skeletal dysplasias;
  • leptin;
  • FGFRs;
  • TGFβs;
  • ACVR1;
  • BMPs;
  • MSXs;
  • RUNX2;
  • IHH;
  • PTH;
  • PTHR1;
  • RANKL;
  • RANK;
  • OPG;
  • LRP5;
  • GNAS1;
  • SOX9


Bone and cartilage and their disorders are addressed under the following headings: functions of bone; normal and abnormal bone remodeling; osteopetrosis and osteoporosis; epithelial–mesenchymal interaction, condensation and differentiation; osteoblasts, markers of bone formation, osteoclasts, components of bone, and pathology of bone; chondroblasts, markers of cartilage formation, secondary cartilage, components of cartilage, and pathology of cartilage; intramembranous and endochondral bone formation; RUNX genes and cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD); osterix; histone deacetylase 4 and Runx2; Ligand to receptor activator of NFκB (RANKL), RANK, osteoprotegerin, and osteoimmunology; WNT signaling, LRP5 mutations, and β-catenin; the role of leptin in bone remodeling; collagens, collagenopathies, and osteogenesis imperfecta; FGFs/FGFRs, FGFR3 skeletal dysplasias, craniosynostosis, and other disorders; short limb chondrodysplasias; molecular control of the growth plate in endochondral bone formation and genetic disorders of IHH and PTHR1; ANKH, craniometaphyseal dysplasia, and chondrocalcinosis; transforming growth factor β, Camurati–Engelmann disease (CED), and Marfan syndrome, types I and II; an ACVR1 mutation and fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva; MSX1 and MSX2: biology, mutations, and associated disorders; G protein, activation of adenylyl cyclase, GNAS1 mutations, McCune-Albright syndrome, fibrous dysplasia, and Albright hereditary osteodystrophy; FLNA and associated disorders; and morphological development of teeth and their genetic mutations. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.