The oral–facial–digital syndromes (OFDS) result from the pleiotropic effect of a morphogenetic impairment affecting almost invariably the mouth, face and digits. Other organ systems can be involved, defining specific types of OFDS. To date, 13 types have been distinguished based on characteristic clinical manifestations. An updated list of these types is provided and recent molecular data are discussed. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.