This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.
Article first published online: 5 JAN 2009
Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
Special Issue: Elements of Morphology: Standard Terminology
Volume 149A, Issue 1, pages 93–127, January 2009
How to Cite
Biesecker, L. G., Aase, J. M., Clericuzio, C., Gurrieri, F., Temple, I. K. and Toriello, H. (2009), Elements of morphology: Standard terminology for the hands and feet. Am. J. Med. Genet., 149A: 93–127. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32596
How to cite this article: Biesecker LG, Aase JM, Clericuzio C, Gurrieri F, Temple IK, Toriello H. 2009. Elements of morphology: Standard terminology for the hands and feet. Am J Med Genet Part A 149A:93–127.
- Issue published online: 16 JAN 2009
- Article first published online: 5 JAN 2009
- Manuscript Accepted: 15 OCT 2008
- Manuscript Received: 25 SEP 2008
Vol. 158A, Issue 7, 1813, Article first published online: 18 JUN 2012
- congenital abnormalities;
- congenital limb deformities;
- malformed nails;
An international group of clinicians working in the field of dysmorphology has initiated the standardization of terms used to describe human morphology. The goals are to standardize these terms and reach consensus regarding their definitions. In this way, we will increase the utility of descriptions of the human phenotype and facilitate reliable comparisons of findings among patients. Discussions with other workers in dysmorphology and related fields, such as developmental biology and molecular genetics, will become more precise. Here we introduce the anatomy of the hands and feet and define and illustrate the terms that describe the major characteristics of the hands and feet. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.