• congenital abnormalities;
  • terminology;
  • anatomy;
  • anthropometry;
  • hands;
  • feet;
  • congenital limb deformities;
  • nails;
  • malformed nails;
  • dermatoglyphics


An international group of clinicians working in the field of dysmorphology has initiated the standardization of terms used to describe human morphology. The goals are to standardize these terms and reach consensus regarding their definitions. In this way, we will increase the utility of descriptions of the human phenotype and facilitate reliable comparisons of findings among patients. Discussions with other workers in dysmorphology and related fields, such as developmental biology and molecular genetics, will become more precise. Here we introduce the anatomy of the hands and feet and define and illustrate the terms that describe the major characteristics of the hands and feet. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.