Elements of morphology: Standard terminology for the hands and feet



This article is corrected by:

  1. Errata: Corrigendum to “Elements of Morphology: Standard Terminology for the Hands and Feet. Am J Med Genet 2009 149A:93–127” Volume 158A, Issue 7, 1813, Article first published online: 18 June 2012

  • This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  • How to cite this article: Biesecker LG, Aase JM, Clericuzio C, Gurrieri F, Temple IK, Toriello H. 2009. Elements of morphology: Standard terminology for the hands and feet. Am J Med Genet Part A 149A:93–127.


An international group of clinicians working in the field of dysmorphology has initiated the standardization of terms used to describe human morphology. The goals are to standardize these terms and reach consensus regarding their definitions. In this way, we will increase the utility of descriptions of the human phenotype and facilitate reliable comparisons of findings among patients. Discussions with other workers in dysmorphology and related fields, such as developmental biology and molecular genetics, will become more precise. Here we introduce the anatomy of the hands and feet and define and illustrate the terms that describe the major characteristics of the hands and feet. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.