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Article first published online: 5 JAN 2009
Copyright © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
Special Issue: Elements of Morphology: Standard Terminology
Volume 149A, Issue 1, pages 29–39, January 2009
How to Cite
Hall, B. D., Graham, J. M., Cassidy, S. B. and Opitz, J. M. (2009), Elements of morphology: Standard terminology for the periorbital region. Am. J. Med. Genet., 149A: 29–39. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32597
How to cite this article: Hall BD, Graham JM Jr., Cassidy SB, Opitz JM. 2009. Elements of morphology: Standard Terminology for the periorbital region. Am J Med Genet Part A 149A:29–39.
- Issue published online: 16 JAN 2009
- Article first published online: 5 JAN 2009
- Manuscript Accepted: 15 OCT 2008
- Manuscript Received: 18 SEP 2008
- periorbital structures;
- lacrimal glands
An international group of clinicians working in the field of dysmorphology has initiated the standardization of terms used to describe human morphology. The goals are to standardize these terms and reach consensus regarding their definitions. In this way, we will increase the utility of descriptions of the human phenotype and facilitate reliable comparisons of findings among patients. Discussions with other workers in dysmorphology and related fields, such as developmental biology and molecular genetics, will become more precise. Here we introduce the anatomy of the periorbital area and define and illustrate the terms that describe the major characteristics of the periorbital area. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.