Elements of morphology: Standard terminology for the nose and philtrum


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  • How to cite this article: Hennekam RCM, Cormier-Daire V, Hall J, Méhes K, Patton M, Stevenson R. 2009. Elements of morphology: Standard terminology for the nose and philtrum. Am J Med Genet Part A 149A:61–76.


An international group of clinicians working in the field of dysmorphology has initiated the standardization of terms used to describe human morphology. The goals are to standardize these terms and reach consensus regarding their definitions. In this way, we will increase the utility of descriptions of the human phenotype and facilitate reliable comparisons of findings among patients. Discussions with other workers in dysmorphology and related fields, such as developmental biology and molecular genetics, will become more precise. Here we introduce the anatomy of the nose and philtrum, and define and illustrate the terms that describe the major characteristics of these body regions. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.