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Article first published online: 5 JAN 2009
Copyright © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
Special Issue: Elements of Morphology: Standard Terminology
Volume 149A, Issue 1, pages 77–92, January 2009
How to Cite
Carey, J. C., Cohen, M. M., Curry, C. J.R., Devriendt, K., Holmes, L. B. and Verloes, A. (2009), Elements of morphology: Standard terminology for the lips, mouth, and oral region. Am. J. Med. Genet., 149A: 77–92. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32602
How to cite this article: Carey JC, Cohen MM Jr., Curry CJR, Devriendt K, Holmes LB, Verloes A. 2009. Elements of morphology: Standard terminology for the lips, mouth, and oral region. Am J Med Genet Part A 149A:77–92.
- Issue published online: 16 JAN 2009
- Article first published online: 5 JAN 2009
- Manuscript Accepted: 16 OCT 2008
- Manuscript Received: 13 OCT 2008
An international group of clinicians and scientists working in the field of dysmorphology has initiated the standardization of terms used to describe human morphology. The goals are to standardize these terms and reach consensus regarding their definitions. In this way, we will increase the utility of descriptions of the human phenotype and facilitate reliable comparisons of findings among patients. Discussions with other workers in dysmorphology and related fields, such as developmental biology and molecular genetics, will become more precise. Here we summarize the anatomy of the oral region and define and illustrate the terms that describe the major characteristics of the lips and mouth. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.