This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.
Article first published online: 5 JAN 2009
Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
Special Issue: Elements of Morphology: Standard Terminology
Volume 149A, Issue 1, pages 6–28, January 2009
How to Cite
Allanson, J. E., Cunniff, C., Hoyme, H. E., McGaughran, J., Muenke, M. and Neri, G. (2009), Elements of morphology: Standard terminology for the head and face. Am. J. Med. Genet., 149A: 6–28. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32612
How to cite this article: Allanson JE, Cunniff C, Hoyme HE, McGaughran J, Muenke M, Neri G. 2009. Elements of morphology: Standard terminology for the head and face. Am J Med Genet Part A 149A:6–28.
- Issue published online: 16 JAN 2009
- Article first published online: 5 JAN 2009
- Manuscript Accepted: 19 OCT 2008
- Manuscript Received: 15 SEP 2008
An international group of clinicians working in the field of dysmorphology has initiated the standardization of terms used to describe human morphology. The goals are to standardize these terms and reach consensus regarding their definitions. In this way, we will increase the utility of descriptions of the human phenotype and facilitate reliable comparisons of findings among patients. Discussions with other workers in dysmorphology and related fields, such as developmental biology and molecular genetics, will become more precise. Here we introduce the anatomy of the craniofacies and define and illustrate the terms that describe the major characteristics of the cranium and face. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.