Mutations in the gene for tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanin synthesis, are responsible for oculocutaneous albinism type 1, and more than 100 mutations of this gene have been identified. The c.1205G > A variant of the tyrosinase gene (rs1126809) predicts p.R402Q and expression studies show thermolabile enzyme activity for the variant protein. The Q402 allele has been associated with autosomal recessive ocular albinism when it is in trans with a tyrosinase gene mutation associated with oculocutaneous albinism type 1. We have identified 12 families with oculocutaneous albinism type 1 that exhibit segregation of the c.1205G > A variant with a known pathologic mutation on the homologous chromosome, and demonstrate no genetic association between autosomal recessive oculocutaneous albinism and the Q402 variant. We conclude that the codon 402 variant of the tyrosinase gene is not associated with albinism. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.