• whole genome sequencing;
  • exome sequencing;
  • ethics;
  • informed consent;
  • return of results;
  • information dissemination;
  • privacy;
  • data sharing;
  • confidentiality


Exome sequencing (ES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) putatively identify all adverse functional alleles of protein-coding genes. Accordingly, while ES/WGS are transformative new tools for gene discovery in human and medical genetics research, they also generate new manifestations of ethical issues related to the consent process, data sharing, and return of results. These manifestations have yet to be comprehensively framed, due in part to the rapidity with which new technologies for ES/WGS are being applied and because of a lack of empirical data to provide guidance. Accordingly, researchers, funding agencies, and policy makers have largely dealt with these issues intuitively. We explain how use of ES/WGS challenges: (i) models under which informed consent is typically obtained; (ii) how harms associated with data sharing are considered; and (iii) the nature of obligations surrounding unanticipated findings. We provide broad guidance about interim ways to contend with these issues and make broad recommendations for areas for novel resource and policy development. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.