Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) and infantile systemic hyalinosis (ISH) are rare, autosomal recessive disorders of the connective tissue caused by mutations in the gene encoding the anthrax toxin receptor 2 protein (ANTXR2) located on chromosome 4q21. Characteristically, these conditions present with overlapping clinical features, such as nodules and/or pearly papules, gingival hyperplasia, flexion contractures of the joints, and osteolytic bone defects. The present report describes a pair of sibs and three other JHF/ISH patients whose diagnoses were based on typical clinical manifestations and confirmed by histopathologic analyses and/or molecular analysis. A comparison of ISH and JHF, additional thoughts about new terminology (hyaline fibromatosis syndrome) and a modified grading system are also included. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.