• nemaline myopathy (NM);
  • massively parallel sequencing;
  • the ryanodine receptor type 1 gene (RYR1);
  • fetal akinesia;
  • ophthalomoplegia


Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a group of congenital myopathies, characterized by the presence of distinct rod-like inclusions “nemaline bodies” in the sarcoplasm of skeletal muscle fibers. To date, ACTA1, NEB, TPM3, TPM2, TNNT1, and CFL2 have been found to cause NM. We have identified recessive RYR1 mutations in a patient with severe congenital NM, through high-throughput screening of congenital myopathy/muscular dystrophy-related genes using massively parallel sequencing with target gene capture. The patient manifested fetal akinesia, neonatal severe hypotonia with muscle weakness, respiratory insufficiency, swallowing disturbance, and ophthalomoplegia. Skeletal muscle histology demonstrated nemaline bodies and small type 1 fibers, but without central cores or minicores. Congenital myopathies, a molecularly, histopathologically, and clinically heterogeneous group of disorders are considered to be a good candidate for massively parallel sequencing. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.