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Alagille syndrome in a Vietnamese cohort: Mutation analysis and assessment of facial features

Authors

  • Henry C. Lin,

    1. Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
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  • Phuc Le Hoang,

    1. Department of Gastroenterology, Children's Hospital # 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
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  • Anne Hutchinson,

    1. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, The University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
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  • Grace Chao,

    1. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, The University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
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  • Jennifer Gerfen,

    1. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, The University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
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  • Kathleen M. Loomes,

    1. Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
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  • Ian Krantz,

    1. Division of Human Genetics and Molecular Biology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
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  • Binita M. Kamath,

    1. Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Nancy B. Spinner

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, The University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 1007A Abramson Research Building, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19104.

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  • Henry C. Lin and Phuc Le Hoang contributed equally to the work.

  • How to Cite this Article: Lin HC, Hoang PL, Hutchinson A, Chao G, Gerfen J, Loomes KM, Krantz I, Kamath BM, Spinner NB. 2012. Alagille syndrome in a Vietnamese cohort: Mutation analysis and assessment of facial features. Am J Med Genet Part A. 158A:1005–1013.

Abstract

Alagille syndrome (ALGS, OMIM #118450) is an autosomal dominant disorder that affects multiple organ systems including the liver, heart, eyes, vertebrae, and face. ALGS is caused by mutations in one of two genes in the Notch Signaling Pathway, Jagged1 (JAG1) or NOTCH2. In this study, analysis of 21 Vietnamese ALGS individuals led to the identification of 19 different mutations (18 JAG1 and 1 NOTCH2), 17 of which are novel, including the third reported NOTCH2 mutation in Alagille Syndrome. The spectrum of JAG1 mutations in the Vietnamese patients is similar to that previously reported, including nine frameshift, three missense, two splice site, one nonsense, two whole gene, and one partial gene deletion. The missense mutations are all likely to be disease causing, as two are loss of cysteines (C22R and C78G) and the third creates a cryptic splice site in exon 9 (G386R). No correlation between genotype and phenotype was observed. Assessment of clinical phenotype revealed that skeletal manifestations occur with a higher frequency than in previously reported Alagille cohorts. Facial features were difficult to assess and a Vietnamese pediatric gastroenterologist was only able to identify the facial phenotype in 61% of the cohort. To assess the agreement among North American dysmorphologists at detecting the presence of ALGS facial features in the Vietnamese patients, 37 clinical dysmorphologists evaluated a photographic panel of 20 Vietnamese children with and without ALGS. The dysmorphologists were unable to identify the individuals with ALGS in the majority of cases, suggesting that evaluation of facial features should not be used in the diagnosis of ALGS in this population. This is the first report of mutations and phenotypic spectrum of ALGS in a Vietnamese population. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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