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Keywords:

  • trisomy 13;
  • trisomy 18;
  • trisomy 21;
  • down syndrome;
  • edwards syndrome;
  • patau syndrome;
  • mosaicism;
  • translocations

Abstract

This study describes the cytological and epidemiological findings in 985 trisomy 13 and 2512 trisomy 18 compared with 10,255 trisomy 21 diagnoses between 2004 and 2009 included in the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register of England and Wales. The frequency of occurrence, proportions diagnosed prenatally, sex ratios, mean maternal age, and proportions of mothers with recurrences were analyzed. Ninety-seven, 98%, and 92% were free karyotypes for trisomy 21, 18, and 13, respectively; 3% of 21, 1% of 18, and 8% of trisomy 13 were translocations; and under 1% of trisomies 21 and 18 were double or triple aneuploids. Overall 1% of each trisomy had mosaicism, but 48% of the trisomy 21 double aneuploids, and 10% of trisomy 18 multiple aneuploids had mosaicism. The proportion of livebirths was 40% of trisomy 21, 11% of 18, and 13% of 13, respectively. Free trisomies 21 and 13 had an excess of males, and 18 had an excess of females, as did mosaic free trisomies 21 and 18. Mean maternal ages were 35.9 years in trisomy 21, 36.4 years in 18, and 34.6 years in 13. During the 6 years of data collection 1% of the mothers had recurrences, most recurrent trisomy 21 or 18 were identical translocations, but hetero-trisomic recurrences included 21 and 18, and 21 and 13. There are significant differences between the trisomic karyotypes and attributes, possibly related to their variable origins. Notable are the relative excess of trisomy 13 translocations, mosaicism in cases with multiple aneuploidy, and the types of homo- and hetero-recurrences. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.