How to Cite this Article: Adam MP, Fechner PY, Ramsdell LA, Badaru A, Grady RE, Pagon RA, McCauley E, Cheng EY, Parisi MA, Shnorhavorian M. 2012. Ambiguous genitalia: What prenatal genetic testing is practical? Am J Med Genet Part A. 158A:1337–1343.
Ambiguous genitalia: What prenatal genetic testing is practical?†
Article first published online: 11 MAY 2012
Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
Volume 158A, Issue 6, pages 1337–1343, June 2012
How to Cite
Adam, M. P., Fechner, P. Y., Ramsdell, L. A., Badaru, A., Grady, R. E., Pagon, R. A., McCauley, E., Cheng, E. Y., Parisi, M. A. and Shnorhavorian, M. (2012), Ambiguous genitalia: What prenatal genetic testing is practical?. Am. J. Med. Genet., 158A: 1337–1343. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.35338
- Issue published online: 17 MAY 2012
- Article first published online: 11 MAY 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 25 JAN 2012
- Manuscript Received: 30 AUG 2011
- ambiguous genitalia;
- disorders of sex development;
- prenatal diagnosis;
Concern for ambiguous genitalia or chromosome-phenotype discordance detected in a prenatal setting has increased over the last two decades. Practitioners faced with this prenatal finding have a variety of genetic tests available to them; however, it is unclear to what extent prenatal testing for disorders of sex development (DSD) is useful or practical. We undertook a retrospective review of the medical records of 140 individuals evaluated through the DSD clinic at Seattle Children's Hospital with birthdates from 01/01/1994 through 08/16/2011 to determine the rate of prenatal detection of ambiguous genitalia in individuals with DSD, what prenatal diagnostic workup was undertaken, and the postnatal outcome, including whether a postnatal genetic diagnosis was confirmed. Of all 140 subjects, 34 (24%) were identified prenatally. The most common postnatal diagnoses were penoscrotal hypospadias with transposition of the scrotum with no known genetic cause (24/140; 17%) and 21-hydroxylase deficiency (20/140; 14%). Apart from these, no single diagnosis comprised more than a few cases. Prenatal diagnostic testing varied widely, from no tests to multiple molecular tests with amniotic fluid hormone concentrations. In the absence of other fetal anomalies or growth retardation on ultrasound, prenatal karyotype with fluorescence in situ hybridization for the SRY gene is the most useful test when ambiguous genitalia is suspected. Further prenatal testing for Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome in 46,XY individuals and congenital adrenal hyperplasia in 46,XX individuals may be considered. However, targeted molecular testing for rare DSD conditions in the absence of a family history of DSD has a low yield. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.