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Norrie disease: Extraocular clinical manifestations in 56 patients


  • The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

  • How to Cite this Article: Smith SE, Mullen TE, Graham D, Sims KB, Rehm HL. 2012. Norrie disease: Extraocular clinical manifestations in 56 patients. Am J Med Genet Part A. 158A:1909–1917.


Norrie disease (ND) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by congenital blindness, progressive sensorineural hearing loss and cognitive impairment. The ocular phenotype has been well described, while the extraocular manifestations of the disorder are not well understood. We present the data from the Norrie Disease Registry, which consists of 56 patients with detailed clinical histories and genotype data. This study represents the largest, detailed investigation into the phenotypic spectrum of ND to date and more importantly expands knowledge of the extraocular clinical manifestations. We identify several novel aspects of the syndrome that will improve the management of these patients. In particular, we expand our understanding of the neurologic manifestations in ND and identify a chronic seizure disorder in approximately 10% of all patients. In addition, details of the hearing phenotype are described including the median age of onset (12 years of age) and how genotype affects onset. Moreover, we find vascular disease to be a significant component of ND; and vascular health should be, in the future, a component of patient clinical care. In summary, the results expand our understanding of the phenotypic variability and genotypic heterogeneity in ND patients. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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