How to Cite this Article: Wilson C, Playle R, Toma A, Zhurov A, Ness A, Richmond S. 2012. The prevalence of lip vermilion morphological traits in a 15-year-old population. Am J Med Genet Part A 161A:4–12.
The prevalence of lip vermilion morphological traits in a 15-year-old population†
Article first published online: 3 DEC 2012
Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
Volume 161, Issue 1, pages 4–12, January 2013
How to Cite
Wilson, C., Playle, R., Toma, A., Zhurov, A., Ness, A. and Richmond, S. (2013), The prevalence of lip vermilion morphological traits in a 15-year-old population. Am. J. Med. Genet., 161: 4–12. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.35515
- Issue published online: 22 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 3 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 14 MAY 2012
- Manuscript Received: 1 SEP 2011
- lip vermilion morphology;
- lip shape;
- cupid's bow;
- lip phenotype;
- vermilion of the lip
The aim of this study is to describe and categorize the various lip vermilion morphological traits, prevalence, and associations present in a 15-year-old population The instrument we developed was checked for the reliability of assessment. The study is a cross-sectional study of lip vermilion morphology in 2,246 fifteen-year-old children. Three-dimensional surface laser scans were taken of the children, and a classification scale was derived and assessed for intra- and inter-reliability. The prevalence of lip vermilion morphological traits and associations was identified. Certain features are found to be likely to be associated with each other: thin philtrum and smooth/deep indentation of the philtrum; wide philtrum and smooth/normal gradient, flat/absent Cupid's bow and smooth/normal/indentation near nose, V-shaped Cupid's bow and indentation in middle/deep groove; thin upper lip vermilion and deep groove; thick upper lip vermilion and smooth philtrum; acute nasolabial angle and upper lip double border and thick upper lip vermilion; obtuse nasolabial angle and thin upper lip vermilion. In conclusion, we present a new method to identify the various morphological features of the vermilion of the lips. The prevalence of morphological traits has been identified in this 15-year-old population. In addition, the association of lip traits has been reported. This classification scale may be utilized to ascertain prevalence of features amongst other ethnic groups, to gain knowledge of what is considered to be attractive features, and to determine genotype/phenotype associations. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.