How to Cite this Article: Etheredge AJ, Finnell RH, Carmichael SL, Lammer EJ, Zhu H, Mitchell LE, Shaw GM. 2012. Maternal and infant gene–folate interactions and the risk of neural tube defects. Am J Med Genet Part A 158A: 2439–2446.
Maternal and infant gene–folate interactions and the risk of neural tube defects†
Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012
Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
Volume 158A, Issue 10, pages 2439–2446, October 2012
How to Cite
Etheredge, A. J., Finnell, R. H., Carmichael, S. L., Lammer, E. J., Zhu, H., Mitchell, L. E. and Shaw, G. M. (2012), Maternal and infant gene–folate interactions and the risk of neural tube defects. Am. J. Med. Genet., 158A: 2439–2446. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.35552
- Issue published online: 18 SEP 2012
- Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 4 JUN 2012
- Manuscript Received: 16 NOV 2011
- National Institutes of Health. Grant Numbers: F31 NS056777, R01 NS050249
- congenital abnormalities;
- folic acid;
- genetic association studies;
- molecular epidemiology;
- neural tube defects;
- maternal nutritional physiological phenomena;
- nervous system malformations;
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common, serious malformations with a complex etiology that suggests involvement of both genetic and environmental factors. The authors evaluated maternal or offspring folate-related gene variants and interactions between the gene variants and maternal intake of folates on the risk of NTDs in their offspring. A case–control study was conducted on mothers and/or their fetuses and infants who were born in California from 1999 to 2003 with an NTD (cases n = 222, including 24 mother–infant pairs) or without a major malformation (controls n = 454, including 186 mother–infant pairs). Maternal intake of folates was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and genotyping was performed on samples from mothers and infants. For mothers in the lowest folate-intake group, risk of NTDs in offspring was significantly decreased for maternal MTHFR SNPs rs1476413, rs1801131, and rs1801133 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.55, 80% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20, 1.48; OR = 0.58, 80% CI: 0.24, 1.43; OR = 0.69, 80% CI: 0.41, 1.17, respectively), and TYMS SNPs rs502396 and rs699517 (OR = 0.91, 80% CI: 0.53, 1.56; OR = 0.70, 80% CI: 0.38, 1.29). A gene-only effect was observed for maternal SHMT1 SNP rs669340 (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.96). When there was low maternal folate intake, risk of NTDs was significantly increased for infant MTHFD1 SNPs rs2236224, rs2236225, and rs11627387 (OR = 1.58, 80% CI: 0.99, 2.51; OR = 1.53, 80% CI: 0.95, 2.47; OR = 4.25, 80% CI: 2.33, 7.75, respectively) and SHMT1 SNP rs12939757 (OR = 2.01, 80% CI: 1.20, 3.37), but decreased for TYMS SNP rs2847153 (OR = 0.73, 80% CI: 0.37, 1.45). Although power to detect interaction effects was low for this birth defects association study, the gene–folate interactions observed in this study represent preliminary findings that will be useful for informing future studies on the complex etiology of NTDs. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.