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Keywords:

  • brachydactyly;
  • multiple congenital anomaly syndrome;
  • postaxial polysyndactyly;
  • short stature;
  • X-linked mental retardation syndrome

Abstract

The family observed in this study included affected males and asymptomatic females. The patients shared specific digital abnormalities including postaxial polydactyly, cutaneous syndactyly, and brachydactyly. In addition, the patients exhibited mild-to-moderate intellectual disability and short stature coupled with microbrachycephaly, scoliosis, and cerebellar and renal hypoplasia. No chromosomal alterations or copy number variations were found in the index case. The genetic linkage analysis, which focused on the X chromosome, and the haplotype analysis detected a ∼15.74 Mb candidate region located at Xp11.4–p11.21 with a LOD score of 4.8. Additionally, half of the mothers showed skewed X-inactivation, while the other mothers exhibited random inactivation patterns. The candidate region includes 28 protein-encoding genes that have not yet been implicated in human disorders. We speculate that the observed phenotype is compatible with a monogenic disorder in which the mutant gene plays a significant role during embryonic development. Based on the patients' clinical features, image studies, pedigree, chromosome location, and X-inactivation studies in the mothers, we propose that this family has a novel, specific syndrome with an X-linked recessive mode of inheritance. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.