Diagnostic screening identifies a wide range of mutations involving the SHOX gene, including a common 47.5 kb deletion 160 kb downstream with a variable phenotypic effect

Authors

  • David J. Bunyan,

    Corresponding author
    1. Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, Hampshire SO16 6YD, UK
    • Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory, Salisbury District Hospital, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP2 8BJ, UK
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Kevin R. Baker,

    1. Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory, Salisbury District Hospital, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP2 8BJ, UK
    Search for more papers by this author
  • John F. Harvey,

    1. Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory, Salisbury District Hospital, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP2 8BJ, UK
    2. Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, Hampshire SO16 6YD, UK
    Search for more papers by this author
  • N. Simon Thomas

    1. Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory, Salisbury District Hospital, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP2 8BJ, UK
    2. Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, Hampshire SO16 6YD, UK
    Search for more papers by this author

Correspondence to:

Dr. David J. Bunyan, Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory, Salisbury District Hospital, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP2 8BJ, UK.

E-mail: dave.bunyan@salisbury.nhs.uk

Abstract

Léri–Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) results from heterozygous mutations of the SHOX gene, with homozygosity or compound heterozygosity resulting in the more severe form, Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD). These mutations typically take the form of whole or partial gene deletions, point mutations within the coding sequence, or large (>100 kb) 3′ deletions of downstream regulatory elements. We have analyzed the coding sequence of the SHOX gene and its downstream regulatory regions in a cohort of 377 individuals referred with symptoms of LWD, LMD or short stature. A causative mutation was identified in 68% of the probands with LWD or LMD (91/134). In addition, a 47.5 kb deletion was found 160 kb downstream of the SHOX gene in 17 of the 377 patients (12% of the LWD referrals, 4.5% of all referrals). In 14 of these 17 patients, this was the only potentially causative abnormality detected (13 had symptoms consistent with LWD and one had short stature only), but the other three 47.5 kb deletions were found in patients with an additional causative SHOX mutation (with symptoms of LWD rather than LMD). Parental samples were available on 14/17 of these families, and analysis of these showed a more variable phenotype ranging from apparently unaffected to LWD. Breakpoint sequence analysis has shown that the 47.5 kb deletion is identical in all 17 patients, most likely due to an ancient founder mutation rather than recurrence. This deletion was not seen in 471 normal controls (P < 0.0001), providing further evidence for a phenotypic effect, albeit one with variable penetration. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Ancillary