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Long-term follow-up of four patients with langer–giedion syndrome: Clinical course and complications


  • A. Schinzel and M. Riegel contributed equally to this work.
  • Conflict of interest: none.
  • Dedicated to Professor Andres Giedion (2.5.1925–15.1.2013).

Correspondence to:

Professor Albert Schinzel, Institute of Medical Genetics of the University of Zürich, Schorenstr. 16, CH-8603 Schwerzenbach, Switzerland.



Long-term observations of individuals with the so-called Langer–Giedion (LGS) or tricho–rhino-phalangeal type II (TRPS2) are scarce. We report here a on follow-up of four LGS individuals, including one first described by Andres Giedion in 1969, and review the sparse publications on adults with this syndrome which comprises ectodermal dysplasia, multiple cone-shaped epiphyses prior to puberty, multiple cartilaginous exostoses, and mostly mild intellectual impairment. LGS is caused by deletion of the chromosomal segment 8q24.11–q24.13 containing among others the genes EXT1 and TRPS1. Most patients with TRPS2 are only borderline or mildly cognitively delayed, and few are of normal intelligence. Their practical skills are better than their intellectual capability, and, for this reason and because of their low self-esteem, they are often underestimated. Some patients develop seizures at variable age. Osteomas on processes of cervical vertebrae may cause pressure on cervical nerves or dissection of cerebral arteries. Joint stiffness is observed during childhood and changes later to joint laxity causing instability and proneness to trauma. Perthes disease is not rare. Almost all males become bald at or soon after puberty, and some develop (pseudo) gynecomastia. Growth hormone deficiency was found in a few patients, TSH deficiency so far only in one. Puberty and fertility are diminished, and no instance of transmission of the deletion from a non-mosaic parent to a child has been observed so far. Several affected females had vaginal atresia with consequent hydrometrocolpos. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.