Schizophrenic disorders are complex genetic disorders that may involve multiple genes of small effect. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene variants are associated with alterations in brain function and an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, conflicting results have been reported in schizophrenia. We compared the ApoE genotypes of 114 French Caucasian schizophrenic patients and 91 normal controls. No differences in ApoE allele or genotype frequencies were observed between the two groups. However, we observed a possible association between male schizophrenic patients and the ApoE ε2ε3 genotype. In addition, a meta-analysis of all published case-control studies on ApoE and schizophrenia did not support a major role for ApoE gene variants in schizophrenia as a whole. However, ApoE may be associated with particular forms of schizophrenia. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.