Several lines of evidence suggest that a certain type of personality or temperament is at risk for developing neuropsychiatric diseases, and that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) might be involved in pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases such as mood disorders. Considering the role of BDNF and personality traits in the neuropsychiatric diseases, it is of interest to examine the association between BDNF gene polymorphism and personality test scores. In this study, we examined the association between 196 G/A the polymorphism in the coding region of the BDNF gene and personality traits scores (temperament and character inventory (TCI) and NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI)) in Japanese healthy subjects. We found that female, but not male, subjects with BDNF genotype A/A have high scores in reward dependence on TCI and high scores in extraversion on NEO-PI as compared with other genotypes (G/A or G/G), suggesting an association between reward dependence (or extraversion) personality traits and BDNF genotype in female subjects. Our findings suggest that BDNF 196 A/G polymorphism might be associated with personality traits in female, but not male, healthy subjects. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.